Lost & Misrepresented Voices of Afghanistan Chapter 2 Page 4

Amir in regards to trauma narrative. Bray and Bray state that personal experience trauma “immediately engages with and recalls first hand experiences of loss, shame and transformation”. (Bray and Bray, 2013, vii). Hosseini’s novel certainly deals with ‘loss’ and ‘shame’ as the main protagonist reveals his inner secrets from his childhood still haunt him in adulthood. Abraham and Torak refer widely to Freud’s theories on Mourning and Melancholy and state that “Freud is surprised that melancholics show no shame at all at the horrible things for which they blame themselves”. (Abraham and Torak, 1994, p.136). Why should innocent victims of trauma show shame for events that they have no control over? It seems evident that guilt overrides the past actions and controls the current