Lost & Misrepresented Voices of Afghanistan Chapter 2 Page 11

the only thing to eradicate or ease him of this pain and torment of this manifested haunting is to face the past. Markham states that: Whatever the original trauma and however it came about − accidentally or deliberately, with or without intended malice− the result on its young victim is the same a total destruction of his self−esteem. (Markham, 1998, p.1). Markham summarizes quite well Amir’s state of trauma from his childhood. Amir had ‘accidentally’ witnessed a traumatic assault on his half sibling Hassan. Hassan was raped by an older boy, Assef in broad daylight. Witnessing the rape of another male child understandably has led to ‘a total destruction of his self−esteem’ (Markham, 1998, p.1) as he entered his adult life this consequently has left him haunted and unable to move forward