Lost & Misrepresented Voices of Afghanistan Chapter 2 Page 12

with his life. Bray states in Voicing Trauma and Truth that one of Freud’s earliest texts Beyond the Pleasure Principle declares that “the traumatic time is always current, through flashbacks, memories and other mechanisms which lead back to the past situations (as in dreams, for instance)” (Bray, 2013, p.242). Amir is evidently as stated previously torn between two worlds as supported by Derrida’s notion of the spectral moment. Amir is also a prime candidate for Freud’s theory as he is ridden with guilt as ‘the traumatic time’ leaves him burdened with ‘flashbacks, memories’ that leave him reliving the trauma he has witnessed as a child and haunted by the ghosts of the past. Freud states in Beyond the Pleasure Principle that “the patient is fixated to his